A Psychology of Christianity

by Daniel Coburn


The following is a brief outline of a psychology of Christianity. More specifically, it focuses on presenting a psychological interpretation of some major themes in Christian theology, spirituality, and symbolism.

I want to share a few things before getting into the outline by way of introduction. First, the following is not meant to be a reductionistic interpretation that excludes other levels of interpretation. It is simply meant to highlight some of the psychological significance I see in major themes of Christianity. I approach this as an exploratory exercise seeking consilience, not a reductionistic exercise seeking exclusive or final answers. So the following outline is not meant to suggest Christianity is “nothing but” something in your head or to “explain away” other levels of interpretation.

Second, the following outline assumes that analytical conceptualizations which view psychology, theology, spirituality, and mysticism as discrete domains that are completely separate are misleading and wrong. Rather, the following outline is based on the assumption that psychology, theology, spirituality, and mysticism are distinct yet overlapping, which is why I seek to explore areas of consilience.

Third, I want to stress my primary concern is not with addressing questions of theological or philosophical metaphysics given my limited focus. Readers can each decide their own metaphysics for themselves.

Overall, this essay suggests there is a psychological story of development running through the biblical narrative that includes a major problem and its solution. Following the emergence of humanity’s advanced intelligence, we observe our traumatic fall into enhanced self-awareness with the new burdens and evils that accompanied this event as the major problem, while the psychology of Christ’s love and self-transcendence renewing humanity and recreating the cosmos as the full realization of its solution.

A Psychology of the Creation & the Fall

The stories of creation and the fall of humankind are mythological origins stories of the emergence of human nature and distinct features of human psychology. They are mythological because they narrate perennially relevant truths about our human condition that still apply to our lives and circumstances today. The creation story of Genesis One is a mythological origins story of the progressive emergence of advanced human intelligence, language, and meaning-making by which the known world was creatively formed into a meaningfully organized cosmos, mediated by the language-based power of the divine Word.

Psychologically, this cosmos-making activity occurs by creative acts of analytically “separating” and differentiating parts of the created world into distinct identities, while also synthetically naming and “binding together” similar parts into common identities, which are two constituent processes of meaning-making and world(view) creation from which an ordered cosmos is dynamically formed out of nonorder and nonlanguage by the power of the divine Word. Moreover, humans are made in the likeness of the divine Word, infused with the divine Breath, endowed with unique capacities and responsibilities for participating in creatively cultivating and caring for the world, developing its potentials for good as agents of the Word.

The story of the fall of humankind is a mythological origins story of the dawning of self-awareness and, in particular, the painful emergence of the dark sides of enhanced self-consciousness with its new burdens and consequences for humans beings. More specifically, it is about how enhanced self-consciousness gave humankind new insights into our existential conditions of nakedness, vulnerability, and mortality, as well as new ethical insights, capacities, and responsibilities as a consequence of possessing enhanced self-consciousness which enables new knowledge of good and evil.

In other words, the first major consequence of the fall of humanity is a new overwhelming and painful sense of self-awareness. As the story goes, Adam and Eve’s eyes were opened, they felt naked and ashamed, they were motivated to hide and cover themselves, they became acutely aware of their existential vulnerability and mortality, and they traumatically “fell” into an awareness of the harsh realities of history, suffering, and death. Enhanced self-consciousness also enabled the psychological development of a strengthened sense of a bounded individual ego-self, separate from non-ego realities, which introduced a new general sense of separation, disconnection, and isolation into the human psychological condition.

The second major consequence of the fall is the entrance of new knowledge of good and evil. But why is enhanced self-consciousness related with “consuming” new ethical knowledge of good and evil? Because by learning and knowing how “I” can be hurt and harmed as a result of enhanced self-consciousness, I know how others who are like me can be hurt and harmed, and I can use this ethical knowledge for good or evil based on my moral choices. As a result, the fall of humanity comes with new ethical knowledge, capacities, and responsibilities shared by human beings, which marks the loss of a prior state of innocence and the introduction of new existential and moral guilt. Subsequent biblical stories also highlight how new sins and evils corrupt the human world in various ways after the fall.

Hence why the biblical tradition teaches all humans are subsequently born into the same fallen nature of Adam and inherit the same legacy of our fallen humanity after this critical event. Which is to say that humans are born into the same human nature and inherit the same distinctive psychology and ethical capacities of human being.

Responding to the profound and devastating consequences of the fall of humanity is the central problem of the whole biblical narrative. Which raises the central question, how do we heal ourselves and our world from the legacy of the fall and overcome its harmful effects? Everything that follows in the biblical narrative with the coming of Christ and the final renewal of the world is about solving this essential problem.

A Psychology of the Christ & Satan

Christ and Satan are each representative figures of particular psychological, social, and ethical patterns of living in the world, which can manifest psychologically at the levels of “schema” types, “personality types,” and/or “archetypes.” The patterns of Christ and Satan represent contrary psychologies and ethics associated with absolute good and absolute evil that are respectively directed toward conflicting value-states and goal-states of Heaven and Hell. Their relationship is therefore characterized by ethical opposition, struggle, and conflict in which Christ is ultimately portrayed as the more powerful and victorious of the two ways of living.

The central conflict between Christ and Satan psychologically is a struggle for the self. On the one hand, the pattern of Satan is primarily organized around selfish, ego-centred pride combined with disregard for the wellbeing of others, which is understood to be a cause of various evils and a source of deep deception. The core lie and deception of this pattern of living is the central motivating belief that “I matter the most.” More specifically, the belief that I am the most valuable thing in existence, that I matter more than others, and that I am the most worthy object of the best of my love and devotion, which I should organize and orient my whole life around serving above all others and above all else.

On the other hand, the pattern of Christ is primarily organized around selfless, self-giving, self-sacrificing love oriented toward altruistically serving the wellbeing of others. Christ’s self-transcendence overcomes the narrower fixations of Satan’s prideful egoism by a greater, more encompassing and dynamic self primarily organized and motivated by love. Instead of placing himself above others, Christ descends downward in love and humility to serve others for the purpose of supporting the wellbeing and growth of all, which reveals Christ’s identity of love.

A Psychology of Christ’s Incarnation, Life, Suffering, Death & Resurrection

The victory of Christ’s love in the struggle for self is embodied and acted out by Christ in the whole journey of his incarnation, life, suffering, death, and resurrection. Through this journey, Christ is addressing and overcoming the problems of our fallen human nature. He is not offering a mere theoretical answer but is applying and embodying the solution to the problem through his whole way of living, while simultaneously modelling by example the Christian pathway of healing and transformation for others to follow.

In Christ’s incarnation and life, Christ fully identifies with humanity, descending from the highest heavenly place, “taking the very nature of a servant” who uses his power to love and care for others. Christ’s identification with humanity is taken to its most extreme end in his suffering and death. For a central issue of human living is how will I respond to my suffering and death? Will I attempt to avoid suffering and deny death, selfishly looking out for only myself and seeking my own comfort and preservation above all else? Or will I voluntarily accept life’s suffering and seek to love others in all circumstances, even in my suffering and death?

Christ’s answer is to fully identify with our human condition, accepting and responsibly bearing it all, even unto suffering and death. And by fully accepting the burden of humanity with unconditional love, Christ overcomes the powers of suffering, evil, and death to dominate and control humanity in fear. As a result, Christ transcends these powers and transforms human nature, showing a new way to be human defined by freedom and love.

Hence why Paul says, “I have been crucified with Christ and I [ego] no longer live, but Christ lives in me.” Our journey of transformation in Christ is dramatized in ritual acts of baptism where we identify ourselves with Christ, descending down into the waters in death and rising up from the waters to a new resurrected life. Psychologically, this is a journey of leaving behind our old personal ego-self for the purpose of embracing our new transpersonal self-in-Christ.

Through his journey, Christ overcomes the fallen nature and original psychology of Adam (humanity) by fully accepting and overcoming it through self-transcendence motivated by love, forming a new nature and new transformed humanity, which is the collective Body of Christ, guided and unified together by the same mind and ways of Christ. Thus, the old psychology of the “first Adam” is transformed by the greater psychology of the “second Adam” who is Christ. All who are “in Christ” and all who participate in the mind and embodying of Christ’s love are members of this renewed humanity, connected and unified together by the same life and love.

A Psychology of God

There are many theologies of God within Christianity and beyond Christianity in other religions. The following, however, is not primarily a theology of God but rather more of a focused and functional definition relevant to understanding a Christian psychology of God. Readers can decide on any other particulars of theology and metaphysics for themselves.

For the purposes of this outline, I would like to modestly suggest functionally defining God as reality. That God is the I Am-ness and realness of existence.

Usually I prefer avoiding using terms like “supernatural” when referring to God because these notions generally have a lot of misleading conceptual baggage attached to them. To clarify, God is not “supernatural” in the sense that God is separate from nature and reality. Rather, God is supernatural in the sense that God is super-nature and super-reality — the full unlimited superabundance of reality. Although theology is not the primary concern of this outline, it is worth pointing out that conceiving of God as anything separate from reality, other than reality, or less than reality are some of the most profound, misleading theological errors one could possibly make according to the understanding I am presenting.

Psychologically knowing and seeking God is therefore equivalent with knowing and seeking reality. These are two ways of saying the same thing. Likewise, seeking anything other than reality is a misdirected pursuit — traditionally known as idolatry — of devoting oneself to seeking anything less-than-reality or other-than-reality, which can include living by mistaken theological ideas about God or any other misconceptions about reality that limit one’s full engagement with reality. Moreover, seeking to know and love God with all of oneself is the same as seeking to know and love reality with all of oneself, which can require self-sacrifice and self-transcendence insofar as self-constructs are limiting and interfering with fully loving reality with one’s whole being.

The psychology of “theosis” (union with God) modelled by Christ, which is the true goal of Christian spirituality, involves overcoming the limited, isolated sense of a separate ego-self while gaining an expanded, open sense of one’s self-in-Christ motivated by love, which rediscovers a sense of loving connection, wholeness, and oneness with all reality, resulting in the healing and transformation of one’s self by fully identifying with Christ and reality.

A Psychology of Heaven & Hell

Heaven and Hell are representative models of ethical states of absolute good and absolute evil. Moreover, Heaven and Hell can be understood as macro heuristic models of ideal ethical states of existence that partly developed for guiding and motivating moral behaviours. The heuristic of Heaven developed for guiding “approach” behaviours motivated by seeking heavenly goods and rewards, while the heuristic of Hell developed for guiding “avoidance” behaviours motivated by fleeing hellish evils and punishments. Hence why it is taught to seek God and flee the Devil, to pursue heavenly rewards and avoid the punishments of Hell.

Interestingly, we use similar language of “place” and “states” to describe both fixed geographical locations and dynamic states of experience. I would suggest Heaven and Hell are not fixed geographies or static locations as sometimes imagined, but rather dynamic states of existence that emerge based on the quality of our ethical living.

With this perspective, the arrival of Kingdom of Heaven on earth proclaimed by Christ is about the progressive arrival of a dynamic state of existence that we may discover and participate in ourselves, here and now. Like a political kingdom, the Kingdom of Heaven is an analogy for the sphere of influence organized and guided by the purposes of God as revealed in the example of Christ. We may discover the Kingdom of Heaven is among us, around us, and within us, right here and right now, as we each psychologically and socially align our way of living with the example of Christ’s love, sharing in Christ’s prayer that things may be “here on earth as in Heaven.”

A Psychology of Spiritual Conflict & Warfare

There are many foundational metaphors for modeling and understanding the nature of spirituality. Spiritual “warfare” and its variants are one common set of organizing metaphors in Christian theology and spirituality. It shows up in notions of spiritual battles, attacks, oppositions, strongholds, fighting, and struggling, in notions of heavenly hosts, armies, and legions, and in notions of how we struggle against spiritual forces, powers, principalities. And in the original historical contexts of the tradition, war was a regular feature of everyday life everyone could relate with.

Conflict models have been used in various schools of modern psychology and psychotherapy. Jeffrey Young’s following comments are an example of this in schema therapy: “Schema healing is the ultimate goal of schema therapy. Because a schema is a set of memories, emotions, bodily sensations, and cognitions, schema healing involves diminishing all of these… Schema healing requires willingness to face the schema and do battle with it. It demands discipline and frequent practice. [People] must systematically observe the schema and work everyday to change it. Unless it is corrected, the schema will perpetuate itself. Therapy is like waging war on the schema [emphasis added]. The therapist and the patient form an alliance in order to defeat the schema, with the goal of vanquishing it. The goal is usually an unrealizable ideal, however: Most schemas never completely heal, because we cannot eradicate the memories associated with them” (2006, 31–32).

Spiritual conflict and growth can likewise be understood at the psychological level in many similar ways. The overall goal of spiritual development in Christianity is overcoming one’s fallen, false self primarily organized around selfish pride and inflated egoism for the purpose of discovering and developing one’s self in Christ, which is one’s greater and truer identity organized by the power of love, and which is a source of profound healing and transformation.

A Psychology of Healing, Redemption & Hopes for Complete Future Renewal

A constellation of interrelated metaphors are used in Christian tradition and spirituality to describe the incredibly great changes and transformations that occur as we ourselves, individually and socially, become transformed by the psychology of Christ. These metaphors include redemption, freedom, liberation, victory, reconciliation, reunion, healing, justification, purification, regeneration, recreation, etc.

At the core is an understanding that we may experience our greatest change and transformation by embodying Christ’s love and learning to follow his example of self-transcendence, by which we may grow and discover a new identity organized by the psychology of Christ, which is the psychology of love, releasing us from our old identities and ways of living. This core understanding is also translated to the greatest possible scale of fulfilment, as the end of the Christian narrative of history is the recreation of a completely renewed cosmos, a vision of new heavens and new earth.

This teleological, goal-oriented, aspirational vision serves as an inspirational guide for our own journeys of discipleship as students of Christ. Understood psychologically, Christian discipleship is a journey of learning and adopting the schema and personality of Christ as one’s own true identity and way of living for the purpose of participating in bringing the state of heaven on earth. The hope is that as we transform ourselves, our relationships with one another, and our relationships with our world, the cosmos we live in will be progressively transformed into a state of peace, love, thriving, and flourishing, which is final Christian vision of a fully renewed world.

Daniel Coburn is completing his Masters degree in Social Work in Canada. He welcomes reader’s comments on this article: dcoburn88@gmail.com.

This article is re-published from Medium by the author’s permission.
c.f., https://medium.com/@daniellewis_25907/a-psychology-of-christianity-c3b2733e50f8


by Archpriest Isaac Skidmore

On a regular basis, Orthodox priests find themselves in situations in which they need to accurately assess parishioners’ spiritual well-being. Confession is but one setting where this takes place. There are likely few priests who have not occasionally felt daunted by the challenge of distinguishing which kinds of struggles brought by parishioners fall squarely within the purview of spiritual counsel, and which might benefit from referral to professional mental health providers. Coursework provided by some Orthodox seminaries prepares students for counseling that takes place in the parish, and acknowledges that there is a time for referral to outside professionals. Continue Reading Here

About This Author

V. Rev. Isaac Skidmore holds an MDiv from St. Vladimir’s Orthodox Theological Seminary and a PhD in Depth Psychology from Pacifica Graduate Institute in Carpinteria CA. He is an adjunct instructor in the clinical mental health counseling program at Southern Oregon University. He served as rector at Archangel Gabriel Orthodox Church (OCA) in Ashland OR during a decade of its growth as a mission parish, where he remains attached as auxiliary priest. He practices as a licensed psychotherapist in Southern Oregon, frequently working with people who are exploring issues of faith, meaning, and identity.

The dialogue between psychoanalysis and Orthodox

Yiouli Eptakoli’s interview with Rev’d. Fr. Dr. Vassilios Thermos.

What can religion offer in psychoanalysis? And what can psychoanalysis offer to religion? The Institute of Historical Research of the National Research Foundation, within the framework of the research program “Science and Orthodoxy around the World”, organizes a December 1st conference on “Psychoanalysis and Orthodox Theology“. It is part of the 3rd International Conference of the Program entitled “The relationship between science and Orthodox Christianity: past-present-future” (29/11/11) and will bring to Athens important psychoanalysts, psychiatrists, theologians, researchers and philosophers.

For decades polarization has shaped relations between psychoanalysis and Christianity, psychoanalysts and theologians. However, recent research has revealed a growing interest from modern-day orthodox theologians, thinkers and mental health practitioners – who are often also clergy – to psychoanalytic theory and therapeutic practice as a means of anthropological understanding, pastoral care, but also the interpretation of religion and spirituality as a manifestation of civilization.

The conference will explore important topics of theological anthropology such as the concept of the soul, the distinction between mental and spiritual development, passions, emotions management. The aim of the organizers is to find areas of convergence and synergy. We contacted Professor Vasilos Thermos, associate professor at the Athens Ecclesiastical Academy of Athens – a psychiatrist of children and adolescents, to talk about the profits from the dialogue of religion and psychoanalysis.

What expectations do you have from this workshop?

This is the biggest attempt ever made in our country. Look, from all schools of psychotherapy psychoanalysis appeared the closest to the quests of theology about the “inward man”. Despite the fact that initially most of the psychoanalysts were atheists, and Freud psychoanalytically documented atheism and degraded religiousness, nevertheless psychoanalysis and theology continued to be constantly chosen along the way. Indeed, in some European countries we also had psychoanalysts who were Catholic clergy or Protestant pastors. The theoretical dialogue has never stopped through books, articles, conferences, where there are signs promising a mutual fertilization of the two sites. (Some previous attempts can be found in the volume “Healing” from the Armos publications).

We want psychoanalysts and clergy to better understand each other so that in theory both the fermentation and in practice the representatives of both sites can cooperate and communicate. There are people who are in psychoanalytic therapy and at the same time are faithful, have a spiritual. Are the two actors able to communicate and to be interviewed? That’s what we want to explore. It unifies both Freud’s wording that man must be able to love and work. But love in theology is understood to be something much larger than a more libidous transformation of libido (which is indeed), it is the “eternal invasion of the ephemeral”, as Marilyn Robinson was aptly attributed.

Do you think psychoanalysis has lost ground that religion has gained?

In the mental health framework, psychoanalysis has gone somewhat marginally compared to the past, because it is a lengthy and costly process, and other shorter therapies have occurred. Nevertheless, society keeps a keen interest in psychoanalysis, since it has always maintained bridges with literature, sociology, history, politics.

I would also say that there has been a shift in religion in general in recent years, but it is not always healthy. Modernity was hostile to faith with atheism and rationality, but at least it was still the truth. Postmodernism, though more religion-friendly, has a major flaw. Because of its moral relativity she is indifferent to the truth. The question, “what is true?”, “What is true?” Does not make sense for the postmodern climate. What is often heard today is “It does not matter what you think, you do well and you believe it helps you to be calm, if it helps you to find meaning in your life. It does not matter if what you believe is true. ” In this setting, religious belief can be a tautology,

However, psychoanalysis and theology have become more interactive and dialectical in recent years. Previously, there were polarizations, because a combat atheism characterized psychoanalysis, but also because the ecclesiastical space felt some self-sufficiency. Psychoanalysis has become more humble, whereas theology, in a world that is so complex, begins to understand that it can not speak to the modern man with a language that is not his own.

Are the two spaces seen in the same way as humans?

No, but there are some common things. For example, both sites agree on the influence of the unconscious, that man is not just what it looks like. Both spaces converge to an optimism for man, that man can change. Both agree on the importance of the relationship, that man is formed through the Other, as well as the role of the imaginary in this process. In addition, as they struggle for maturity, they are allies in the fight against the pathological narcissism and consumerism that plague our time. The psychoanalysis accepts, theoretically, that there is mature faith (while Freud considered every religion immature). However, I have the impression that he still maintains the new embarrassment when he is unable to understand how it is possible for a person to be related to God’s face without himself underestimating himself or inactivating his powers. Another difference is that the goal of psychoanalysis is to resolve internal conflicts in a way that no longer produces symptoms, while theology aims to transform man in a way that is not “out of this world.” Often, however, his psychological treatment facilitates and opens the way for spiritual development. whereas theology aims at transforming man in a way that is not “out of this world”. Often, however, his psychological treatment facilitates and opens the way for spiritual development. whereas theology aims at transforming man in a way that is not “out of this world”. Often, however, his psychological treatment facilitates and opens the way for spiritual development.

The current man in Greece has anger, anger, is violent, able to resort even to self-justice. What interpretation do you give to what is happening in Greek society?

My firm position is that the Greek mentality has been built on an incomplete internalisation of the law. I mean the psychoanalytic law, which has a direct effect on the relationship with the conventional law. We keep the law so we do not have problems with it, but we have not conquered it internally. It is a permanent endemic problem, but now the wrath is gigantic and its expression is liberated due to the crisis. And the collapse can also lead to self-justice.

Is there a serious cause for concern?

I think yes. And let’s not only focus on the phenomena of self-justice. It is disturbing that there is anger mixed with grief. Many who prefer to walk the way of anger do it so that they do not dive into depression. Another sad element is the loss of hope. But I really think we can change as a people and that only then does it hope that the state will change.

Unfortunately, in recent years we have gone a long way and I refer to measures that have a key symbolic meaning. Because when a government takes back measures to rehabilitate universities, restoring lawlessness, it sends a message to society, respectively. When you introduce anti-smoking remedies and moderate them afterwards, you again send a wrong message to society. But Lacan has taught us that the law is closely linked to the acceptance of the shortage. We need to be trained in the fact that lack is a structural element of mankind, not something that sadly is imposed by political circumstances, domestic and international. Then utopian fantasy inevitably generates violence.

The Greek and foreign participants

The workshop will take place on 1 December 2018 at the National Research Foundation (amphitheater “Leonidas Zervas”), with an opening time of 9 am. Work will be done in English, with simultaneous translation in Greek. Dr. Evdokia Delli, Researcher, Academy of Athens, Dr. Athanasios Alexandridis, Psychopathic psychiatrist, Dr Steven-John M. Harris, Psychologist, Center for Depth Psychology, Prof. Nikolaos Loudovikos, Professor, Higher Ecclesiastical Academy of Thessaloniki, Muse, Psychologist – Clergy-in-Kairos Training and Pastoral Program Director, Pastoral Institute, Columbus, GA, USA, Dr. Dimitrios Kyriazis, Psychiatrist – Child Psychiatrist – Psychoanalyst, Vassilios Thermos, Associate Professor, Athens Superior Ecclesiastical Academy – Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist , Dr. Petar Yevremov psychologist, professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Belgrade,

Source: http://www.kathimerini.gr/995308/gallery/proswpa/synentey3eis/o-dialogos-anamesa-se-yyxanalysh-kai-or8odo3i

AFR: Oneness in Marriage

Oneness in Marriage Conference

Oneness in Marriage Conference

January 2015

Sponsored by the Center for Family Care of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, the 2015 Oneness in Marriage Conference, which was hosted by St. Paul’s Greek Orthodox Church in Irvine, California, focused on growing and protecting the blessed communion of marriage. The conference took place January 29 – 31 in Santa Ana, California, and attendees included clergy, seminarians, pastoral care workers, lay assistants, professional counselors, ministry leaders, and lay people.

Listen on Ancient Faith Radio Archives here











BOOKSHELF: Psychology in … the Church

Psychology in Service to the Church

by Rev’d. Dr. Vasileios Thermos
Published by: Sebastian Press

Man, being in the image of God and “an animal in the process of deification” (according to St. Gregory Nazianzen)—whose brain and nervous system are largely shaped by evolution, who is both restricted and boundless through his genes, sealed by his early experiences, moderated by his hormones, and under a great diversity of other influences—can display a wide range of behaviors, some of which are abnormal.

At the beginning of the third millennium, instead of advocating a “soul therapy approach,” Fr. Thermos offers an inter-disciplinary medical-theological study of such a fundamental and fascinating topic. By keeping the focus on modern ways of thinking about these ideas, Professor Thermos facilitates an exchange of views and experiences between the fields of theology, psychology and psychiatry. The ultimate purpose of this exchange is to serve mankind wishing the Church as well as in the context of the medical sciences.

Language: English
ISBN: 978-19367-733-29
Published: 2017
Number of pages: 166
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Orthodox Psychotherapy and Western Psychology

 His Eminence +Hierotheos
Metropolitan of Nafpaktos and St Vlassios 


(Lectures given by Metropolitan of Nafpaktos, Hierotheos (Vlachos) at the July 18–22 Archdiocesan Clergy Symposium, convened by Metropolitan Joseph and hosted at Antiochian Village by the Antiochian House of Studies.) 


In my previous paper I referred to the difference between Orthodox and Western theology. In this paper we should go on to look at this difference in a practical form, at the subject of how each of these traditions cures people. 

Fr. John Romanides stressed emphatically that we can understand whether a theology is true by whether it is able to cure people. If it cannot cure them, it is not true theology. In the Orthodox Church we have a perfect therapeutic system, which is applied and expressed through the Mysteries and asceticism. 

For that reason, when this method is practised correctly, people are cured. 

First and foremost, therapy means passing through the three stages of the spiritual life, or at least beginning to do so. We defined these stages in the previous paper as purification, illumination and deification; or the coming of divine grace, its withdrawal and its return. This is not a psychological, sociological, ideological or ethical form of therapy. The Apostle Paul has appropriately stressed: “For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God” (Rom. 3:23), and, “Casting down arguments and every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing every thought into captivity to the obedience of Christ” (2 Cor. 10:5). 

According to Orthodox teaching, curing people does not mean propitiating God and satisfying divine justice, but man’s co-operation in order to share in the purifying, illuminating and deifying energy of God. God does not need to be cured of His wrath, which is a characteristic of fallen humanity, but human beings need to be cured. God loves everyone, righteous and unrighteous: “For He makes His sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust” (Matt. 5:45). However, people must prepare themselves appropriately so that the coming of divine grace will act for their healing and not for their condemnation, and so that God may be Paradise and not Hell. This is the basic key to the therapeutic experience of those within the Church.  

I shall now speak about Orthodox psychotherapy. 

  1. Orthodox Psychotherapy

When we refer to Orthodox psychotherapy, we mean the therapeutic experience of the Church that comes about through the Mysteries and asceticism. Orthodox participation in the sacramental life of the Church is inconceivable without the ascetic life, but asceticism is also unthinkable without participation in the Mysteries. There is a wonderful unity between these two integrated facts of ecclesiastical life. 

In the Orthodox Church there is no split between the mystery of the Cross and the mystery of glory. Some people dwell only on the mystery of the Cross and extol the pain of the crucifixion. Others insist on the experience of the resurrection, and want to be reborn without living the mystery of the Cross. 

Every Mystery has both these energies of God’s grace. The stage of being a catechumen comes before Baptism, and through repentance we experience God’s illuminating grace once again. The ascetic Christian life precedes the Mystery of priesthood and continues even when someone has received the charisma of priesthood. The Mystery of the Divine Eucharist presupposes the simultaneous experience of the mystery of the Cross and the mystery of glory. No one can share in the Light of the Resurrection without previously living the mystery of Christ’s Passion and Cross. This is a basic rule in the spiritual life of the Church. 

This is the context in which Orthodox psychotherapy operates. It is the tradition of the neptic, hesychastic life, which, with some modifications, can be lived by all Christians, married and unmarried, monks and laypeople, Clergy and non-Clergy. 

  1. Basic Principles of Orthodox Psychotherapy

The Orthodox Church is a spiritual therapeutic centre or hospital, and the Clergy work as spiritual doctors. The whole life of the Church, which brings together its sacramental and ascetical traditions, is the true method for curing human beings, who are made up of soul and body. Therapy does not refer only to the soul but to the whole human being. 

All the prayers of the Church in the sacred services and the Mysteries refer to curing people. We see the same thing in the troparia that are sung during the sacred services. There is a characteristic troparion (ikos) in the service of the Great Canon composed by St Andrew, Bishop of Crete: 

Seeing Christ’s surgery opened, and health streaming forth from it to Adam, the devil suffered and was wounded; and as one in mortal danger he lamented, crying to his friends: ‘What shall I do to the Son of Mary? I am slain by the Man from Bethlehem, Who is everywhere present and fills all things.’” 

According to this troparion, Christ is a doctor, but also a doctor’s surgery from which health flows to Adam. The devil is smitten by this surgery, so he mourns, and wonders what he ought to do with the Son of the All-Holy Virgin. St Andrew of Crete skilfully shows that Christ’s work heals Adam, and this, of course, inflicts pain on the devil. Christ sets man free from his subjugation to the devil and cures his wounds, which were caused by sin. 

We should look at the ten basic principles of the therapeutic treatment that Christ offers wounded and injured humankind through the Church. These principles underline the fact that the Church is a spiritual therapeutic centre or hospital. Anyone who lives in this spiritual hospital must know the rules by which it functions, because otherwise he will not benefit. In what follows we shall refer mainly to the teaching of St Maximus the Confessor.

a) Illness as an unnatural movement of the soul’s faculties

On account of the sin he committed, Adam lost his communion with God and distanced himself from God’s Light. His fall from divine life is characterised as spiritual sickness, which means that the powers of his soul or body do not function naturally or supranaturally, but unnaturally. If bodily illness is understood as the distortion or dysfunction of the bodily organs, spiritual illness is the dysfunction of the soul’s faculties. 

All the powers of man’s soul ought to have been directed towards God. After the sin, these powers became distorted and they act in a different way. Instead of functioning naturally they fell into disorder. The will, for instance, is the appetite of nature, which ought to move towards God of its own volition. This is called the natural will. Because of the devil’s intervention and man’s free choice, however, this movement changed course, and it became a deliberative (gnomic) will by which sins are committed. This change of direction, the conversion of the natural will into a deliberative will, and the commission of sins are described as sickness. 

Curing people means reinstating all the soul’s dysfunctional faculties and returning them to their normal, natural course. The deliberative will must be healed. St Maximus the Confessor speaks about the immutability of the deliberative will that came about in Christ and those who are united with Him, and says that the natural will ought to move of its own volition towards God. Referring to Adam’s sin, St Maximus the Confessor considers that ancestral sin consists, on the one hand, in the fall of free choice away from good things and towards evil, which is certainly culpable, and, on the other hand, in the transformation of human nature from incorruptibility into corruptibility, which is not blameworthy. After the fall of Adam, free choice lapsed into evil and human nature became corrupt. 

Through His incarnation, Christ took human nature and deified it. This means that He made free choice immutable. He voluntarily assumed liability to corruption, suffering and death in order to conquer corruption, the natural passions, and death in His body. He Himself becomes the medicine of immortality, so in Christ human beings can attain the immutability of free choice, and they will be released in the future from corruptibility, passibility and mortality. This constitutes the healing of the whole human being, of the soul (free choice) and the body (liability to corruption, suffering and death).

b) Curing self-love so it becomes love for God and other people

The previous section specified that self-love, which is the unreasonable love of the body, is the product of the fallen life and constitutes spiritual sickness. It must be converted into love for God and other people. The more someone loves himself, the less capable he is of loving God and his fellow human beings. It is impossible for him to love God and be charitable to others. 

The whole life of the Church consists in transforming selfish love into selfless love. All human beings have within them the power to love, but when they are sick they turn this power towards themselves and become selfish. They must now be cured, which means that selfish love must become selfless. When the Apostle Paul speaks about love, one of the things he writes is that love “does not seek its own” (1 Cor. 13:5).

c) Healing the rational, desiring, and incensive parts of the soul 

In order for the powers of the soul to follow their normal and natural course, the soul’s rational, desiring and incensive parts must be healed. When someone departs from God’s Light and these three powers are no longer orientated towards God, they become sick. This is how the passions are created. 

According to St Maximus the Confessor, the nous that is far from God becomes either like a beast, on account of the passions of the passible part of the soul (desire and anger), or like a demon, due to the passions of the rational part of the soul. The passions of the rational part of the soul are those related to love of praise. The passions of the desiring part of the soul are those linked with love of money and sensual pleasure. And the passions of the incensive part of the soul are those associated with anger and rage. 

These powers of the soul, which are also connected with the powers of the body, are healed by being turned towards God. The commandment in the Old Testament, which Christ repeated, is: “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind” (Matt. 22:37). It is clear from this commandment that all the powers of the soul should be lovingly directed towards God. This comes about when love is linked with the incensive part; self-restraint with the desiring part; and spiritual vigilance (nepsis) and prayer with the rational part. Since the soul is inseparably linked with the body, the whole human being is cured. 

St Maximus the Confessor teaches that thoughts (logismoi) are divided into complex and simple thoughts. Simple thoughts are the concept and the simple memory of gold, a human being, and so on, whereas complex thoughts are impassioned thoughts made up of the concept and the passion, in other words, the passionate acquisition of gold or the human being. Through provocation, coupling and desire, a simple thought can lead to sin and passion. 

Through asceticism according to grace, one can put an end to active passions and attempt to convert complex, passionate thoughts into simple ones by separating the concept from the passion. Then one will see the surrounding world without impassioned concepts. The question of how complex thoughts can be changed into simple thoughts is the subject-matter of ascetic practice and the whole life of the Church in general, under the guidance of a spiritual father.

d) The interconnection between pleasure and pain

God did not create Adam and Eve to have bodily pleasure and pain. Their soul had the capacity for pleasure so that it would move towards theoria (vision) of God. According to St Maximus the Confessor, after they had sinned and been stripped of the Light of God, pleasure shifted from the soul to the body, and then God permitted pain to come in, so as to curb pleasure. Thus bodily pleasure, with the enjoyment of the fruit of disobedience, brought about pain, that is to say, illnesses, suffering and death itself. The Fathers refer to this as corruptibility, passibility and immortality. These are the so-called “garments of skin” that human beings put on after they had sinned and been divested of God’s grace. 

The interconnection between pleasure and pain accompanies human beings all through their lives. Indulging in voluntary pleasure causes involuntary pain, and the attempt to overcome involuntary pain by means of new pleasure causes fresh pain, so a vicious circle is created. In order to be cured, man must get rid of the mutual link between pleasure and pain. Voluntarily taking up the cross of suffering through Christian asceticism, pain and fasting cures pleasure. Through life in Christ pleasure is transferred from the body to the soul, and then man moves continuously towards God through divine longing and intense divine love.

e) The nous in relation to the blameworthy and blameless passions

In fallen man – in each of us – there are blameless and blameworthy passions. Blameless passions are hunger for something to eat in order to sustain the body; thirst for a drink of water, so that our whole organism can function well; sleep to give rest to the body and soul, and so on. These blameless passions, however, can easily become blameworthy passions linked with sin. Hunger can become greed; thirst can turn into drunkenness; and sleep can become over-indulgence in sleep, laziness, and listlessness. 

The method preserved in the Church changes blameworthy passions into blameless ones, so man makes use of all material good things and shares in the created world without sinning. In this endeavour the nous plays a major role. The nous is also the first to be affected, that is to say, man’s nous is darkened first, and subsequently the whole of his inner world is darkened. 

When the nous is illuminated and given life by the grace of God through repentance and prayer, it can control our inner world. As a result, the blameless passions remain blameless and the blameworthy passions turn into blameless on

f) Christ is the spiritual doctor of humankind

Through His incarnation, Christ, Who is the second Adam, corrected the error of the first Adam, and through His Cross and Resurrection He cured wounded humankind. He conquered the devil, sin and death in His flesh, and so He became not only the doctor but also the medicine and the doctor’s surgery for curing people. 

Christ is perfect God and perfect man. He assumed mortal, corruptible and passible human nature, without sin, and deified it. According to St Maximus the Confessor, He voluntarily took upon Himself the suffering of the Cross in order to cure man’s pleasure. He also voluntarily assumed the natural, blameless passions, such as liability to suffering, corruption and death, without sin. These blameless passions, of course, did not exercise compulsion over Him, but acted according to His will, and He took them upon Himself in order to cure human beings’ blameworthy passions and enable them, too, to overcome their passibility, corruptibility and mortality in Christ. In this way, not only is sin cured, but the human body will also be set free from liability to suffering, corruption and death after the Second Coming of Christ and the resurrection of the dead. People have a foretaste of this starting from this life through the healing of free choice, the suspension of bodily functions, and the sanctification of the body (holy relics), and this will be perfected at the Second Coming of Christ.

g) Christ cures people through the Mysteries and asceticism

Christ does not heal people theoretically, emotionally and intellectually, but through their participation in His Body, the Church. This comes about through the Mysteries and the ascetic life of the Gospel. 

First babies are born, and then they move and grow, but they must also eat in order to live. The same applies to human beings from a spiritual point of view. Through Baptism they are born spiritually and brought into the Body of Christ. God’s image within them is cleansed and they receive a spiritual ‘vaccination’ to counteract sin. Through Chrismation they acquire movement towards God. Through Holy Communion they are nourished with Christ’s Body and Blood in order to live. 

Participation in the Mysteries, however, must inevitably be linked with keeping Christ’s commandments, which is the ascetic life. Christ said to His Disciples: “Make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you” (Matt. 28:19-20). Discipleship is inescapably connected with “baptizing” (the Mysteries) and “teaching to observe” (asceticism). 

God’s commandments refer to performing the Mysteries; participating in the Divine Eucharist; Holy Communion in the Body and Blood of Christ; prayer, particularly unceasing prayer of the nous in the heart; purity of thoughts and of the heart; and the struggle to direct all the powers of soul and body towards God.

h) The Church as a place of therapy

The Church, as the risen Body of Christ, is actually a place of therapy. The Church is not a social organisation, a community centre, or an ethical and charitable association. It is not a school for teaching philosophy. Rather, it is a spiritual hospital and therapeutic centre in which human beings can be cured, return to their original dignity, and rise even higher to deification. 

Christ performs His therapeutic work within the Church. Christ conquered the devil, sin and death in His Body, and this is repeated in everyone in the Church. The devil is the enemy of human beings and sows evil within them. Sin is committed when thoughts develop into deeds. Death is the result of sin, but it also becomes a reason to commit sin, on account of self-love, which leads people to love glory, sensual pleasure and money. The work of Christ and the Church should be viewed from this perspective. 

The Church is not something abstract but the “one, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church”. It is a specific spiritual organism composed of various autocephalous Churches, and each autocephalous Church has metropolises, dioceses, parishes and monasteries. Every local Church, every metropolis, every parish and every monastery is the whole Church in miniature, when it keeps its synodical and hierarchical system in operation. 

A hospital that treats bodily illnesses has various clinics, and each clinic has a director and medical and nursing staff. There are also administrative staff in the hospital. We should use this image to look at the Church. The general director is the bishop; the directors of particular clinics are the priests and heads of monastic communities; the nursing staff are the deacons, monks, theologians, catechists, and so on. The work of them all is aimed at curing people and uniting them with Christ. They are all undergoing therapeutic treatment. The Church has administrative offices as well, but they cannot replace the operating theatres and therapeutic centres. 

The parish should function like the sketes on the Holy Mountain. Each dwelling is home to a small community, but all the communities centre on the main ‘Sunday’ church, in which the Holy Mysteries are performed, the sacred services are held, and, above all, the Divine Eucharist is celebrated.

i) The saints are those who are being cured and who have been cured

The saints of the Church are not just people who are moral, but those who participate in the mystery of the Cross and Resurrection of Christ, who receive Christ’s healing within the Church, experience God’s purifying, illuminating and visionary energy, and are cured. Ultimately, people in the Church are not divided into those who are moral and those who are not, or those who are educated and those who are not, but into those who are spiritually sick, those who are being treated spiritually, and those who have been spiritually cured, as Fr. John Romanides would say. In accordance with what has already been stressed, therapy is understood as the transformation of selfish love into selfless love; the overcoming of pleasure and pain; the conversion of self-love into love for God and other people; and the cure of the rational and passible parts of the soul.

j) Eternal life in relation to therapy

According to the teaching of the God-seeing saints, God is Light, and whoever is deemed worthy of seeing Him sees Him as Light. However, just as light has two properties – it illumines and it burns – the same applies to the divinte Light. God illumines and burns. 

This has to do with man’s spiritual state. If he has a pure nous and a spiritual eye, he will see God as Light at the Second Coming of Christ. If, however, his nous is darkened, he will experience the burning property of the Light. Both the light and the fire are uncreated, so Paradise and Hell depend on the state of the human being. Paradise is the experience of the illuminating energy of God, and Hell is the experience of the burning energy of God. 

This is clearly shown in the icon of the Second Coming of Christ. The Light that illuminates the righteous issues from God’s throne, but the river of fire which engulfs sinners also flows from God’s throne. Spiritual therapy is therefore necessary. The nous, which is the eye of the soul, must be purified so that, when Christ appears at His Second Coming, it can see Him as Light and not as fire, and can share in God’s illuminating energy, not His burning energy. It follows that the pastoral ministry of the Church is first and foremost therapeutic. We should view the work of the Church from this perspective. 

Eternal life is related to the way in which we live in the present life. These are the ten basic principles on which the spiritual hospital of the Church operates, and one must respect them in order to begin to be cured, and for this to have eternal consequences. 

  1. Psychology and Neuroscience

This way of looking at the Church as a spiritual hospital or therapeutic centre, although it is very old and is recorded in the writings of the Fathers and the entire tradition of the Church, is nevertheless also very up to date, because contemporary science refers to curing people of various unpleasant conditions. In the Western world more than two hundred systems of psychotherapy have developed, each with a different content and purpose, because the Orthodox neptic tradition was unknown. 

We know from various studies that up until the nineteenth century psychology went along with philosophy and expressed its various philosophical trends. Subsequently, however, psychology became independent of both philosophy and biology. Later many trends developed within psychology, such as behaviourism, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Nowadays cognitive psychology is linked with neurology, and cognitive neuroscience is cultivated, as scientists study the interaction between psychological and neurological states in people. 

A few definitions need to be given to clarify the subject of therapy from the point of view of contemporary science, and after that the value of Orthodox psychotherapy will be specified. Behaviourism is the view “that was originally expressed by John B. Watson and developed into a basic approach of psychology. It is concerned with the scientific study of behaviour that is obvious, objectively observable, and directly measurable, and excludes the study of processes such as thought, the emotions and motives. Behaviourism formulated principles and laws for the behaviour of organisms.” 

Cognitive psychology is “a branch of psychology concerned, on the one hand, with analysing human intellectual processes (attention, perception, memory, thought, reasoning), and, on the other, with studying the way in which information is processed by the individual.” 

Cognitive neuropsychology is “a branch of cognitive psychology that studies the effects of cerebral damage or injury on different cognitive functions, such as language, memory, attention, perception, and so on.” Neuropsychology is “a branch of psychology and neurology that concentrates on the study and understanding of behaviour and intellectual functions as a result of disturbances in the activity of the brain and the nervous system in general.” 

Existential psychology is “based on existentialist philosophy. It emphasises self-awareness, the individual’s conscious experiences, and his freedom to choose his way of life and means of self-fulfilment.” (Anastasia Chountoumadi, Lena Pateraki) 

It is clear from this that contemporary science with its various branches attempts to investigate the behaviour, intellectual processes and existential problems of human beings. The sciences try to combine with one another in order to help people, given that human beings are complex and collaboration between many factors is required in order to help them. 

This is considered necessary because, unfortunately, today’s way of life creates various splits and problematic states. People live an inhuman, competitive society in which the law and the right of the strongest prevails. It is amoral, anti-social and disruptive. Thus human beings feel inwardly disorganised. They cannot control their mental world, their thoughts and emotions. They do not have healthy role-models to imitate and there are no healthy traditions to develop their behaviour. They do not find healthy principles to which they can attune their existential world so as to give life meaning. What is more, in contemporary society there is a split between reason, emotion and external behaviour, so people cannot develop in a balanced way or deal in an integrated manner with the problems that trouble them. 

The Church is not simply a religion but God’s communion with human beings that aims to cure them and deify them. Christians live in a society with the characteristics described above, but at the same time they also grow within the atmosphere of the blessed spiritual community of the Church. As a result, they mature spiritually and avoid any sort of split, unless there is a physical problem due to hereditary or other illnesses and disabilities, which requires the intervention of medical science. 

Within the Church people know, by means of Orthodox hesychasm, how to regulate their thoughts and ideas. They are helped in their behaviour by the Church’s worship and communication with the saints, and they acquire good role-models. Their life has meaning, and they solve all the existential problems connected with life, illnesses and death. 

Consequently, within an organised ecclesiastical community or an Orthodox monastery, people live in practice the content of behaviouristic, cognitive and existentialist psychology and psychotherapy in an integrated way. Of course, when there are issues of physical health or neurological problems, the relevant authoritative scientists must give their opinion. 

Over and above this, within the Church there is an abundance of God’s grace. Human beings are united with Christ, and through Him with the Triune God. They receive a complete therapy, which cannot be replaced by any other social, philosophical or scientific system. In other words, they reach deification. No social or scientific organisation is a substitute for the Church and what it can offer wounded humankind. 

Since my childhood, I have travelled a long distance in the life and tradition of the Church. I am grateful to God for counting me worthy to belong to the Orthodox Church through Baptism and Chrismation, and to partake of the Body and Blood of Christ. I am grateful to my parents for bringing me into the world of the Church from my early childhood, and I am also grateful to my spiritual fathers for teaching me in practice what is meant by the therapeutic method. I also owe a great debt of gratitude to God for counting me worthy to meet many ascetics and great theologians, including contemporary Fathers of the Holy Mountain (Fr. Paisios, Fr. Ephraim of Katounakia, Fr. Ephraim of Philotheou, Fr. Porphyrios of Kavsokalyvia, Fr. Theoklitos of Dionysiou, Fr. Gabriel of Dionysiou, and Fr. George, the Abbot of Grigoriou), Fr. Sophrony Sakharov, but also Fr. John Romanides. They revealed to me the great treasure of the Orthodox ascetic and hesychastic tradition of the Orthodox Church. 

On this journey of mine I was helped a lot by Holy Scripture (Old and New Testaments), which I studied as a therapeutic book, but also by the philokalic books of the Fathers of our Church, which showed me this vast spiritual wealth of our Church. 

I should mention the Fathers of the fourth century, including St Basil the Great, St Gregory the Theologian, St John Climacus, the author of The Ladder, St Maximus the Confessor, St Symeon the New Theologian, St Gregory Palamas, St Nicodemus of the Holy Mountain, especially his book A Handbook of Spiritual Counsel: The Guarding of the Five Senses and the Imagination of the Nous and Heart, and what are the Natural Delights of the Nous, The Philokalia of the Neptic Saints, and others. 

Through all these I became acquainted with the hesychastic tradition of the Orthodox Church, which offers us fullness. The lack of this hesychastic tradition in the West and the dominance of rationalistic scholasticism and humanistic Protestant moralism created major difficulties. All the contemporary systems of psychotherapy developed as a result. 

We should glorify God that we live in the Orthodox Church, and we must strive to find its great treasure, which remains secretly within it, to learn its mysterious way of working, and to acquire fullness of life, in order that, when we see God at His Second Coming, He will be light and eternal life. 

The conclusion is that all these currents of contemporary psychology operate inside the Orthodox Church, but the Church has other elements at its disposal that none of the other psychological trends have. 

Everything taught by our holy Fathers has been tested over the centuries. It has been put into practice and produced billions of saints. While living on earth they knew the goal of Christians and the meaning of life. Most importantly, however, they lived in a wonderful tradition that Christ revealed to humankind. And now that they have fallen asleep, they rest in peace. 


Written on 17 October 2016.